Seeking Asylum in Canada: Things To Know & How To Apply

Seeking asylum is a complex and critical decision that individuals make when they are forced to flee their home countries due to persecution, violence, or other forms of danger. Canada, known for its inclusive and humanitarian values, has established processes to provide protection and support for those seeking asylum within its borders. This article explores the process of seeking asylum in Canada, the reasons behind it, the eligibility criteria, application process, challenges faced, and the support available to asylum seekers.

What is Asylum?

Asylum refers to the protection granted by a country to individuals who are unable or unwilling to return to their home country due to well-founded fears of persecution based on factors such as race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. It is a fundamental human right recognized by international law and is crucial for safeguarding the lives and well-being of those fleeing persecution.

Seeking Asylum in Canada

Canada has a long-standing tradition of welcoming refugees and providing a safe haven for those in need. The country has a well-established refugee system designed to assess and process asylum claims fairly and efficiently. Asylum seekers in Canada have the opportunity to present their case and seek protection through the Refugee Protection Division of the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB).

Reasons for Seeking Asylum

There are various reasons why individuals seek asylum in Canada. Some common factors include escaping war and conflict, political instability, human rights abuses, persecution based on their beliefs or sexual orientation, or being part of a targeted minority group. The decision to seek asylum is often driven by a desire for safety, security, and a chance for a better future.

Refugee Process in Canada

The refugee process in Canada involves several stages and requires adherence to specific eligibility criteria. To be considered eligible for asylum, individuals must meet the definition of a refugee under the United Nations Refugee Convention and its protocols. This includes demonstrating a well-founded fear of persecution and being outside of their home country.

Eligibility Criteria

To be eligible for asylum in Canada, individuals must meet certain criteria, including:

  1. Being outside their home country or the country they usually live in.
  2. Having a well-founded fear of persecution.
  3. Being unable or unwilling to return to their home country.
  4. The fear of persecution being based on race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group.

Application Process

The application process for seeking asylum in Canada involves several steps. It begins with the submission of a claim for refugee protection, which includes providing personal information, detailing the reasons for seeking asylum, and supporting evidence. Once the claim is submitted, applicants are scheduled for a hearing before the IRB.

Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB)

The Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) is an independent administrative tribunal in Canada responsible for making decisions on refugee and immigration matters. The IRB conducts hearings and determines whether an individual should be granted refugee protection. The board consists of members who are trained in immigration and refugee law and who assess each case on its merits.

Refugee Hearing

During the refugee hearing, the asylum seeker presents their case before a member of the Immigration and Refugee Board. The hearing provides an opportunity for the asylum seeker to share their personal story, explain the reasons for seeking asylum, and provide any supporting evidence. It is essential to provide a clear and detailed account of the persecution or danger faced in their home country.

The member of the IRB will ask questions to gather additional information and assess the credibility of the asylum seeker’s claims. It is crucial for the asylum seeker to be honest, consistent, and forthcoming with all relevant information during the hearing. The member will consider the individual circumstances, country conditions, and the applicable legal framework to make a decision on the asylum claim.

Waiting Period and Temporary Status

After the refugee hearing, there is a waiting period for the decision. This period can vary in length, depending on various factors such as the complexity of the case and the workload of the IRB. During this time, asylum seekers are often granted temporary status, which allows them to remain in Canada and access essential services, including healthcare and education.

It is important to note that during the waiting period, asylum seekers may face challenges, including uncertainty about their future and difficulties in finding stable employment. However, organizations and community support groups exist to provide assistance, guidance, and resources to help asylum seekers navigate this period.

Benefits and Support for Asylum Seekers

Asylum seekers in Canada may be eligible for various benefits and support programs. These include access to healthcare services, social assistance, language training, and settlement support. The Canadian government and numerous non-governmental organizations collaborate to provide resources and assistance to asylum seekers to help them integrate into Canadian society successfully.

Challenges and Difficulties

Seeking asylum in a new country can be a daunting and challenging experience. Language barriers, cultural differences, and the trauma of leaving one’s home country can create difficulties for asylum seekers. Additionally, the asylum process itself can be lengthy and complex, adding to the stress and uncertainty faced by individuals seeking protection.

Integration and Settlement

Integration and successful settlement are essential for asylum seekers to rebuild their lives in Canada. Integration involves learning the language, understanding Canadian society and culture, and becoming self-sufficient. Settlement support services, such as language classes, employment programs, and community initiatives, play a vital role in assisting asylum seekers in their integration process.

Community Support

Community support is crucial for asylum seekers to feel welcomed and supported in their new environment. Local community organizations, volunteers, and individuals provide invaluable assistance through various initiatives, such as mentorship programs, housing support, and social integration activities. These networks help asylum seekers establish connections, build friendships, and foster a sense of belonging.


Seeking asylum in Canada is a significant decision made by individuals fleeing persecution and danger in their home countries. Canada’s refugee system provides a framework to assess and process asylum claims, ensuring that those in need of protection receive a fair opportunity to present their case. While the journey may be challenging, various support systems and community networks exist to assist asylum seekers in their integration and settlement process.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

  1. Can asylum seekers work in Canada while their claim is being processed?
    • Yes, asylum seekers in Canada can apply for a work permit after a certain period of time has passed since their claim was made.
  2. What happens if an asylum claim is rejected?
    • If an asylum claim is rejected, the individual may have the option to appeal the decision or explore other legal avenues for protection.
  3. Are there any restrictions on the countries from which Canada accepts asylum seekers?
    • Canada does not impose restrictions on the countries from which individuals can seek asylum. The eligibility for protection is determined based on the individual’s circumstances and the criteria outlined in international refugee law.
  4. How long does the asylum process in Canada usually take?
    • The length of the asylum process in Canada can vary depending on various factors, including the complexity of the case, the workload of the Immigration and Refugee Board, and country conditions. It can range from several months to several years.
  5. Can an asylum seeker bring their family members to Canada?
    • In certain circumstances, asylum seekers may be eligible to include their immediate family members in their asylum application or sponsor them for reunification after being granted refugee status.
  6. What support is available for asylum seekers in Canada?
    • Asylum seekers in Canada have access to various support programs and services, including healthcare, social assistance, language training, and settlement support. Non-governmental organizations and community groups also provide assistance with housing, education, and integration.
  7. Is seeking asylum in Canada guaranteed to be successful?
    • The decision on asylum claims in Canada is based on a thorough assessment of individual circumstances and adherence to the criteria set by international refugee law. While Canada has a strong commitment to refugee protection, each case is evaluated on its own merits, and success is not guaranteed.
  8. Can an asylum seeker travel back to their home country while their claim is being processed?
    • It is generally advised against traveling to the home country while an asylum claim is being processed, as it may impact the credibility of the claim. It is essential to consult with legal counsel or refugee support organizations before making any travel decisions.
  9. Can an asylum seeker change their designated country of resettlement from Canada?
    • Once an asylum claim is made in Canada, it is challenging to change the designated country of resettlement. It is crucial to consider all options and seek legal advice before making any decisions.
  10. How can individuals support asylum seekers in Canada?
    • Individuals can support asylum seekers in Canada by volunteering with local community organizations, offering language assistance, providing mentorship, donating essential items, or advocating for refugee rights and inclusive policies.

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